Analysis at regional level Irrigation is mainly applied in southern European regions Map 1 shows the share of irrigable areas and Map 2 the share of irrigated areas in UAA at NUTS 2 regional level in 2016. The highest share in 2016 was found on the Portuguese island Madeira, both for irrigable areas (83.6 %) and irrigated areas (75.3 %). Madeira provides a widespread hydraulic system of irrigation channels, so-called Levadas, which are i. a. used for agricultural irrigation.
mit sehr interessanten Hinweisen zur Geschichte "... The State’s intervention become much more intense when, in 1947, the Administrative Commission for the Exploitation of Water Resources in Madeira (CAAHM), as part of the National Restructuring Plan for Agricultural Water, embarked on a bold plan to improve the water resource systems on Madeira Island. The plan, the major strategist for which was engineer Manuel Rafael Amaro da Costa, consisted in carrying, towards the dry lands of the south, the lost or poorly used waters in the north of the island, without hindering the expansion of the irrigation in that area and taking advantage of the ability to perfectly combine the production of energy (after finding that the majority of flows suitable for catchment were located higher than 1000m and the crop areas started at 600m) which, safeguarding the imperative need to irrigate the land, would allow the waters to go through turbines with a drop of about 400m, before sending them on for irrigation (CAAHM, 1969). ..."
Keine Zeit zum Lesen, also wer will und kann.
Ganz anderes Thema, EU Budget. Nicht schlecht.
Operational Programme "Regional Madeira 2014-2020" The total allocation of the Operational Programme comes to EUR 403 million with a financial contribution of EUR 274 million from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and EUR 129 million from the European Social Fund (ESF).
Frequently, the construction had to resort to “rocheiros”, the name given to the men who worked hanging from ropes tied to trees or rock outcroppings. Placed in baskets, and faced with various dangers, ranging from rocks breaking loose to falling into the abyss, these heroic workers would drill into rock, opening platforms on which to route the levada and accomplishing this work by using only simple and rudimentary tools, such as pick axes, rods, mattocks, rock hammers and hoes.
Their mission to rip through the basalt rock escarpments, placing their life in danger over the abyss and on precipices located at considerable heights or perforating mountains in tunnels, hundreds of metres long, in order to open paths for the water to pass, demonstrates the epic effort that was involved in building this admirable and unrivalled monumental work on Madeira Island.
Unfortunately, many lost their lives on this glorious mission of tearing into the rocky escarpments to open waterways.